Mood Swings in Children

Youngsters in the age gathering of 5 to 6 years can encounter state of mind swings, however it is an uncommon event. In any case, when your tyke edges towards puberty, serious type of emotional episodes can happen, which is significantly more or like what happens in grown-ups. It has been accounted for that 1.6% young people have experienced serious emotional episodes.

As children experience and express differently from adults, it often becomes difficult to label mood swings as a disorder. Mood swings are common and natural; being happy, angry or even confused is all a part of growing up. However, when these disturbances in the mood alternate from mania to depression, and in rare cases, it comes with unexplained violent behavior, it becomes a cause for worry.


ADHD or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common mental disorders seen in children. The disorder makes it very difficult for the child to perform well in school, be attentive, follow instructions, or finish tasks by himself.

» Causes
Genetic factors
Environmental factors
Brain injury
Excessive consumption of sugar or food additives

» Symptoms
Trouble sitting still
Inability to pay attention
Constant fidgeting
Inability to understand others’ needs
Easy distraction

» Treatment
Medications like methylphenidate or amphetamines
Education and training
Alcohol-related Neurodevelopmental Disorder

Alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) is another reason why your child must be experiencing mood swings. It can cause extreme mood swings in children, along with other learning and intellectual disabilities.

» Causes
This disorder is caused if the mother had consumed alcohol during her pregnancy.

» Symptoms
Difficulty with reasoning and thinking
Inability to express clearly
Difficulty with memorizing things
Have to be taught the same thing repetitively

» Treatment
Medications like stimulants, antidepressants, neuroleptics, and antianxiety drugs
Behavioral and education therapy
Parent training
Alternative medicine

OCD or obsessive-compulsive disorder is a very commonly seen disorder. However, when severe, it can start interfering with the child’s ability to do day-to-day activities.

» Causes
Brain disorders
Decreased level of serotonin
Stressful life events
Improper parenting
Self-esteem issues

» Symptoms
Fear of contamination
Fear of being embarrassed
Need for perfection and order

Repetitive behavior such as washing hands, checking door knobs, arranging things in a certain way, counting numbers, etc.

» Treatment
Cognitive behavioral therapy
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)
Anxiety Disorder

Anxiety disorder is a bracket term used for mental disorders that cause anxiety, nervousness, and fear. It includes generalized anxiety disorder, phobias, panic disorder, separation anxiety, situational anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

» Causes
Stressful life events
Improper upbringing
Violent atmosphere

» Symptoms
Excessive worry
Trouble concentrating
Shortness of breath
Inability to stay calm
Heart palpitations

» Treatment
Cognitive behavioral therapy
Acceptance and commitment therapy
Dialectical behavior therapy
Medications like SSRIs and antidepressants
Bipolar Disorder

Sudden behavior change and/or prolonged mood swings in kids is termed as childhood-onset bipolar disorder (COBPD) medically. This condition is characterized by extreme ‘high’ and ‘low’ child behavior. These rapid mood swings can be easily experienced many times within a day in a cyclical fashion.

» Causes
Over-responsive sensory stimulator
Chemical imbalance in the brain (especially in the neurotransmitters that regulate endorphins)
Life-changing experience
Family history of mood disorders
Family history of alcoholism

» Symptoms
Extreme moods swings (behavioral cycle is usually a low in the mornings followed up with an extreme high level of energy in the evening)
Passive and/or violent behavior
Sleep disturbances
Persistent sadness
Fidgety nature
Trouble controlling anger
High levels of anxiety

» Treatment
Mood stabilizers
Anticonvulsant medications
Cognitive behavioral therapy
Talk therapy
Family-focused therapy
Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy
Other Reasons

One should keep in mind that not all mood swings are related to a disorder. Sometimes, there are many extreme factors at play too. The kind of environment that the child is raised in is also vital to his/her mental health. Children need adequate nutrition in their growing years, any deficiency of which can lead to an imbalance or reduction in energy levels. This generally leads to a lack of enthusiasm in them because of lack of energy or lack of physical health. An unappealing physical appearance or characteristics too, can cause depression in children, leading to sudden mood swings, especially in the company of others. Some children also inherit mood disorders or anxiety from their parents.

Disturbed sleep patterns are also seen as a reason for mood swings. Inadequate sleep or excess sleep, both makes young children irritable and lethargic. A child’s mental and emotional health has a direct impact on the way he/she thinks and reacts. Unhappy surroundings, difficult parents, or a difficult learning environment at school, all make a child prone to mood swings.

As a parent or a caretaker, you know your children better. However, it is best to get a diagnosis through a specialist. Mood disorders affect each child differently; hence, no treatment can be the same. An important point to bear in mind is that it is not a disease, and therefore, it has no conventional cure―only management. Alternative treatments like therapy combined with depression and anxiety medication depends upon the frequency, intensity, duration of a child’s symptoms, and response to treatment.

Tips to Height and Weight Charts for Children

Stature and weight are two critical markers of physical advancement in youngsters and are valuable in deciding sustenance prerequisites and also development irregularities, assuming any. The present article gives the sound range and also normal estimations of stature and weight for full-term babies and kids.

Early childhood is an important phase as far as the physical, physiological, and psychological development of an individual is concerned. Monitoring the height and weight is one of the ways to assess physical changes taking place during this phase.

Given below are a few simple, age-specific checkpoints for normal growth, as well as height and weight charts for children. These have been derived from the guidelines and growth charts provided by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and World Health Organization (WHO). They provide the age-specific average height as well as the corresponding average weight for children. Weight charts indicating the normal range of height and weight have also been provided.

0 to 1 Year
What to look out for?
» There is a rapid increase in weight, and a steady increase in height during the first six months.
» By the age of 4 – 6 months, weight is at least double the birth weight.
» There is a steady increase in weight and height during the age of 6 – 12 months. (The increase in weight and length is not as rapid as that observed during the first six months.)

Average Values
(Months) Weight
(Pounds) Length
0 7.3 19.4
1 9.6 21.2
2 11.7 22.1
3 13.3 23.6
4 14.6 24.5
5 15.8 25.3
6 16.6 25.9
7 17.4 26.5
8 18.1 27.1
9 18.8 27.6
10 19.4 28.2
11 19.9 28.7
Normal Range
(Months) Weight
(Pounds) Length
0 5.3-9.3 17.9-20.8
1 7.0-12.1 19.6-22.7
2 8.7-14.6 20.1-24.1
3 10.0-16.6 21.9-25.2
4 11.0-18.2 22.7-26.2
5 12.0-19.5 23.5-27.0
6 12.6-20.6 24.1-27.7
7 13.2-21.6 24.7-28.3
8 13.8-22.4 25.2-28.9
9 14.3-23.2 25.7-29.5
10 14.7-24.0 26.2-30.1
11 15.1-24.7 26.7-30.6

Average Values
(Months) Weight
(Pounds) Length
0 7.4 19.6
1 9.8 21.6
2 12.3 23.0
3 14.1 24.2
4 15.4 25.2
5 16.6 26.0
6 17.5 26.6
7 18.3 27.2
8 19.0 27.8
9 19.6 28.3
10 20.1 28.8
11 20.8 29.3
Normal Range
(Months) Weight
(Pounds) Length
0 5.4-9.7 18.1-21.1
1 7.5-12.8 20.0-23.1
2 9.5-15.6 21.4-24.6
3 11.1-17.7 22.6-25.8
4 12.3-19.3 23.5-26.8
5 13.2-20.1 24.2-27.6
6 14.0-21.7 24.9-28.3
7 14.7-22.7 25.5-28.9
8 15.2-23.6 26.1-29.5
9 15.8-24.3 26.6-30.1
10 16.2-25.1 27.1-30.7
11 16.7-25.8 27.5-31.2

1 to 2 Years
What to look out for?» The total weight gain during the year is 3-6 pounds.» The total increase in length, by the end of second year, is 3-5 inches.
Average Values
(Months) Weight
(Pounds) Length
12 20.4 29.2
13 21.0 29.6
14 21.5 30.1
15 22.0 30.6
16 22.5 30.9
17 23.0 31.4
18 23.4 31.8
19 23.9 32.2
20 24.4 32.6
21 24.9 32.9
22 25.4 33.4
23 25.9 33.7
Normal Range
(Months) Weight
(Pounds) Length
12 15.5-25.3 27.1-31.0
13 15.9-26.0 27.5-31.7
14 16.3-26.7 28.0-32.2
15 16.7-27.2 28.4-32.7
16 17.0-27.9 28.7-33.1
17 17.4-28.5 29.1-33.6
18 17.7-29.1 29.5-34.1
19 18.1-29.7 29.8-34.5
20 18.5-30.3 30.2-34.9
21 18.9-30.9 30.5-35.3
22 19.2-31.5 30.9-35.8
23 19.6-32.1 31.2-36.2

Average Values
(Months) Weight
(Pounds) Length
12 21.3 29.8
13 21.8 30.3
14 22.3 30.7
15 22.7 31.2
16 23.2 31.6
17 23.7 32.0
18 24.1 32.4
19 24.6 32.8
20 25.0 33.1
21 25.5 33.5
22 25.9 33.9
23 26.3 34.2
Normal Range
(Months) Weight
(Pounds) Length
12 17.1-26.4 28.0-31.7
13 17.5-27.1 28.4-32.2
14 17.8-27.7 28.8-32.7
15 18.2-28.3 29.2-33.2
16 18.6-29.0 29.5-33.6
17 18.9-29.5 29.9-34.1
18 19.3-30.1 30.3-34.5
19 19.6-30.7 30.6-34.9
20 20.0-31.2 30.9-35.4
21 20.3-31.9 31.3-35.8
22 20.7-32.5 31.6-36.2
23 21.0-33.1 31.8-36.6

2 to 20 Years

What to look out for?

» There is a steady weight gain of 5 pounds per year till the age of 5 years.
» There is a sudden spurt of growth between 9 and 15 years of age, involving a weight gain of 8-10 pounds per year.
Average Values
(Years) Weight
(Pounds) Height
2 26.5 33.5
3 31.5 37.0
4 34.0 39.5
5 39.5 42.5
6 44.0 45.5
7 49.5 47.7
8 57.0 50.5
9 62.0 52.5
10 70.5 54.5
11 81.5 56.7
12 91.5 59.0
13 101.0 61.7
14 105.0 62.5
15 115.0 62.9
16 118.0 64.0
17 120.0 64.0
18 125.0 64.2
19 126.0 64.3
20 128.0 64.2
Normal Range
Age(Years) Weight
(Pounds) Height
2 22.5-32.1 31.5-36.0
3 25.5-37.5 34.5-39.5
4 28.5-44.1 37.0-42.5
5 32.5-52.0 39.5-45.5
6 36.0-59.0 42.0-48.5
7 39.5-68.0 44.3-51.5
8 44.0-79.0 46.5-54.2
9 48.0-90.0 48.5-56.5
10 55.0-104.5 50.0-58.7
11 61.0-117.0 52.0-61.0
12 68.0-135.0 54.5-64.0
13 75.0-147.0 57.2-66.4
14 83.5-158.0 58.7-67.5
15 89.0-167.0 59.5-68.0
16 94.5-172.0 59.8-68.2
17 97.0-174.0 60.0-68.2
18 99.0-177.0 60.2-68.5
19 101.0-180.0 60.3-68.5
20 102.0-182.0 60.3-68.5

Average Values
Age(Years) Weight
(Pounds) Length
2 27.5 34.2
3 31.0 37.5
4 36.0 40.3
5 40.5 43.0
6 45.5 45.5
7 50.5 48.0
8 56.5 50.4
9 63.0 52.5
10 70.5 54.5
11 78.5 56.5
12 88.0 58.7
13 100.0 61.5
14 112.0 64.5
15 123.5 67.0
16 134.0 68.3
17 142.0 69.0
18 147.5 69.2
19 152.0 69.5
20 155.0 69.7
Normal Range
Age(Years) Weight
(Pounds) Length
2 22.8-33.0 31.7-36.3
3 26.1-38.5 35.2-39.8
4 29.0-44.0 37.5-43.2
5 33.0-52.5 39.8-45.7
6 36.5-59.0 42.2-48.6
7 40.5-68.0 44.5-51.3
8 45.0-77.0 46.7-54.3
9 49.5-88.0 48.7-56.5
10 56.0-100.5 50.5-58.8
11 60.5-114.0 52.0-61.0
12 66.5-130.0 54.0-63.5
13 74.5-144.0 56.3-66.6
14 84.0-159.5 59.1-69.7
15 92.5-172.5 61.6-71.7
16 103.5-182.5 63.3-73.0
17 111.0-194.5 64.0-73.6
18 114.5-202.0 64.5-73.8
19 120.0-206.0 64.8-74.1
20 122.5-210.5 65.0-74.3

The height-weight charts given above are merely reference tools or guidelines for understanding the average measurements at a certain age. The exact height and weight varies with the environment, ethnicity, diet, and genetic makeup. The ideal way to assess growth is to identify the growth trend of your child, and keep an eye for deviations from this trend.

Stuffy Nose Remedies for Babies Tips

A stuffy nose can make your child extremely uncomfortable and crabby. It is a typical wellbeing issue that newborn children confront and can be dealt with effortlessly with the assistance of some home cures. This article will manage you with some simple and basic solutions for the same.

A congested nose in an infant can be quite troublesome and needs to be treated at the earliest. However, there is no cause for alarm as a stuffy nose can be relieved quickly, that too using household ingredients.

Before you begin trying to relieve your baby’s congested nose, keep in mind that babies are too young for over-the-counter drugs. So, if your baby is less than three months old, you should avoid using drugs or medicines usually handed over-the-counter for colds, the same goes for various liquid decongestants, which may be effective in adults but should not be used for babies, if there are other options available.

Let’s take a look at some home remedies, which can be helpful in treating your baby’s blocked nose.

♨ A Steamy Solution

Steam breathing or vapor bath is one of the best ways to relieve a blocked nose in infants. Exposure to steam can help loosen the mucus blocking the baby’s nose. The mucus then drips out on its own, clearing the nasal passage and making it easier for your baby to breathe. It is not necessary to bathe the child, just sitting with him near a steaming tub can work as a humidifier, clearing his nose. You can also prepare some steam, by boiling water in a vessel and holding it carefully near the baby’s nose, whatever you feel is safe for your baby.

● Saline Drops

Saline water is another popular stuffy nose remedy for toddlers. You can buy a ready-made saline water kit or prepare one at home. To make homemade saline water, all you need to do is prepare a mixture of one cup warm water and a half teaspoon of table salt. With the help of a dropper put a few drops of the saline solution in the baby’s nostrils (one drop for each nostril is enough in most cases). Then massage the baby’s nose gently on both sides. Before repeating the procedure, ensure that you sterilize the dropper tip to ensure hygiene, as the dropper may have become contaminated.

☄ Suction Devices

There are two types of suction devices, or nasal aspirators, available on the market that can help you get rid of the mucus in your baby’s nose. Let’s take a look at them:

Rubber bulb syringes
A one-piece rubber bulb type suction device is often supplied with a new-born kit at the hospital, but you can also purchase one at any local pharmacy. The device has a rubber bulb which ends in a tube like syringe which can be gently inserted into your baby’s nose. Squeeze the bulb to push all the air out and create a vacuum, then insert the tube-end into the baby’s nostril. Once inside the nose, let air rush back into the bulb, it will pull some mucus with it depositing it in the bulb, which you can then squeeze out onto a tissue. You can also put a drop of saline water in each nostril a few minutes before you begin, so as to loosen the mucus inside. Do not use the device more than twice on each nostril, it may cause inflammation of the nasal cavity and lead to further discomfort.

Nasal aspirators
The latest nasal aspirators work on the same principle of suction, however, they have a slightly different design. The device consists of a bulb with a nasal syringe, but it also has a pipe attached to the bulb which is used to suck out the mucus. Once inserted into your baby’s nostril, you can gently pull on the pipe to suck the mucus out, which deposits in the bulb. There is a filter installed within the bulb to prevent contamination. Once you are done and your baby is breathing better, the device can be dismantled and cleaned. A few notable brands of aspirators are hydraSense and NoseFrida.

☆ Some Useful Tips

  • Colds tend to reduce appetite and induce long spells of irritability and crying, leading to dehydration. One should make sure the baby gets its requisite amount of fluids, in the form of water and juices.
    Your baby may panic as it finds breathing difficult in such situations, gentle, tender caresses will help your baby relax.
  • Always cover your baby with warm blankets when it is struggling with a stuffy nose.
    Nose congestion in babies can occur due to many reasons like common cold or even allergies. An adult may suffer from 2 to 5 instances of cold in a year, however, this may average to 7 per year in case of babies.
  • If your baby is suffering from a runny nose and a cold you may want to look out for some symptoms which need immediate medical attention. Take your baby to the doctor if its temperature shoots beyond 102° F (38.9° C), has red eyes, has been coughing for over a week, or if there are blood streaks in the sputum.
  • Bishop’s Weed (Trachyspermum ammi) has proven effective in treating nasal blockages, especially in children. The seeds can be wrapped in a fine cloth or handkerchief and inhaled directly for immediate relief.
  • Vaporizers or humidifiers are also readily available in the market which can be used to increase the moisture in the babies room and keep the nasal passages soft. One must be careful to keep the device away from the baby so as to prevent excessive dampness.

The solutions listed above are applicable for children of all ages, and not just babies. Dealing with a stuffy baby nose can be quite a daunting task for both you and your baby, yet, there are various solutions at hand which go a long way in relieving the discomfort it may be experiencing. Try these home remedies as a quick-fix for that troublesome nose, but never hesitate to visit your physician if you feel there is cause for concern.

How to Make Your Workplace Accident-free

images-8Safety is the most vital thing in any environment, be it at home or at work. In the event that you are searching for some wellbeing and security tips for your working environment, then you should keep perusing to know the essentials.

That’s right! Safety is the first and foremost responsibility of an organization towards its employees. It is only the sense of safety and security that would attract an employee towards working in a workplace with comfort and ease. No matter how big is the pay scale that you have been offered, if you don’t feel safe in the working environment, you will not hold on for long! Which is why there are many different safety tips and aspects that should be taken care of so that there are no ‘safety issues’ which can prove to be a problem later on! There are certain parameters that each and every employer should follow when it comes to giving a safe and healthy environment to the employees of the organization. The aspects and areas that should be focused on are listed as under.

Health and Safety Tips for the Workplace

You must have come across various mishaps or accidents that have taken place in an office environment. From tripping to fire accidents, from electric shock to cuts and wounds, and what not. In fact I knew a friend who ended up breaking her nose by tripping down due to the fold of the carpet. There are some small things that can actually be responsible for a major accident. Take open drawers and cabinets for example! Take black mold on walls for example! Has it ever happened to you that you or someone that you know has ended up tripping over because someone in the office forgot to close the cabinet or drawer? Or that you or other employees have experienced a sick feeling sue to the unhygienic environment in your office? Well, not only the employer, but even the employees must take due responsibility and initiative to promote a healthy and safe working environment. Have a look at some essential tips mentioned below.

No Trip and Slip Accidents
Make sure that the most busy and important areas of the office space are always ‘no trip zones’! There can be many reasons for accidents caused due to tripping and slipping. Your foot can slip because of a wet floor, or cluttered wires. Make sure that all the wires are installed properly and nothing is scattered around the office space.

Maintain Health Records of all Employees
Another important point to be considered when it comes to office health safety tips is to maintain health records of all the employees. You can categorize the files of the employees based on their individual health conditions. It will also be a good idea to organize free health check ups once in a month for all the employees. This thoughtful tip will definitely encourage employees to pay attention to their health which will eventually prove to be beneficial to the organization as healthy employees would be more productive.

Be Prepared to Handle Emergency
I guess we all have heard of an office building catching fire due to various reasons, including electric shock! This is why most of the offices have enrolled themselves with a fire insurance to ensure that they have a backup in case of mishaps. Therefore it is important to install fire extinguishers in the office so that in case a situation arises, it can be taken care of before things worsen. It is also a must for an organization to conduct safety drills so that each and every employee knows what to do in an emergency. Keep the cluttered wires grounded and make sure that you appoint a certified electrician to do all the electric work to avoid future complications. Keep first aid ready. Maintain a list of health professionals or hospitals to be contacted in case of any medical emergency.

Maintain a Clean and Safe Office Space
Trust me, making sure that your office space is properly clean and well-organized will solve half the problems and risks! I have already cited the example of how an open cabinet or drawer can lead to unwanted tripping and bruising. Also keep the book shelves well-organized so that the entire pile doesn’t fall over you while you are trying hard to pull one out! Also maintain proper hygiene in the office canteen and provide healthy foods, drinks and beverages to your employees. Strictly maintain proper hygiene while cooking and cleaning. Ensure that they are eating healthy and working healthy. Maintain hygiene in the restrooms and keep the premises clean and safe to work in. Promote health, hygiene and cleanliness to make sure that all your employees are safeguarded from various health and safety risks in the workplace.

Keep the Area Under Surveillance
Installing security cameras and locks is a must when it comes to office safety. This is because apart from accidents like fire, electric shocks, or tripping, even humans can become a potential threat when it comes to safety in the office environment. I mean we all have heard various cases of sexual molestation and burglaries. Keeping the area under surveillance always prevents various accidents and such situations.

Even the slightest of negligence in the smallest of things can cause an irreversible effect. Keep first aid boxes handy. Make sure you have emergency numbers handy with you which can keep help just a phone call away. If you see any threat in the office environment, make sure that you report the matter to higher authorities. These simple and thoughtful steps can definitely help you in making your workplace a safe, accident free and healthy one!